In Christianity, the term ‘Trinity’ refers to the faith that God exists in the three persons of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. While it is not explicitly used anywhere in the Holy Scriptures of the Christians, the following scriptural passage serves as the basis for the Trinity: ‘Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit’ (Mt 28.19).
During the 4th century, the term became the focus of the Christian view of God, and at the early Church councils it was determined that the persons of the Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) are to be considered divine in equal measure. To express that these three persons are one God, the term was coined of a single God existing in three hypostases (persons).
Compared to other religions, Islam has a special closeness to Christianity and to the Christians, yet it is critical of the idea of the Trinity, which is one of the main beliefs of that religion, and accuses those professing faith in this view of infidelity. The concept of the Trinity is firmly rejected in the Qur’an: ‘They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is the third of three.” And there is no god except one God …’ (5:73)
Jesus, whom the Christians regard as the second hypostasis of the Trinity, is described in the Qur’an as a man and prophet: ‘O People of the Scripture, do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was but a messenger of Allah and His word … a soul from Him … And do not say, “Three” … Indeed, Allah is but one God …’ (4:171). This fact is also mentioned by Jesus Himself and confirmed when asked: ‘”And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him.”‘ (19:36)
The criticism found in the Qur’an against belief in the Trinity can give rise to an admittedly unclear impression that not the Holy Spirit but rather Mary is to be counted as a person of the Trinity. Verse 5:116 reads: ‘”O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah’?”‘ Alongside God (Father) and Jesus (Son), Mary’s name is mentioned in lieu of that of the Holy Spirit. However, apart from the criticism of the Trinity, this passage is also interpreted as a criticism of Christians’ worship of Mary, which borders on a cult.
This post is also available in Turkish.